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The Supreme Court of the United States ruled against an Abercrombie and Fitch dress policy that prohibited the job applicant Samantha Elauf from wearing a hijab. In , the Canadian government made it illegal for women to wear face-covering garments at citizenship ceremonies, because the judge must be able to see each person's face reciting their oath.
In , the Supreme Court issued a rare split decision on whether women could cover their faces on the witness stand. Four judges said it depended on the circumstances, two said witnesses should never cover their face, and one said a Muslim witness should never be ordered to remove her veil.
Canada is considering a wider ban on veils in government offices, schools, and hospitals. Argentina has proven to be a country that has given more freedom to its Muslim population relative to the more oppressive governments that exist.
The law was created in order to help promote freedom of religion and expression in the country, and help the Muslim population, which is estimated to be between , and one million, feel more integrated into society. Chile has a minority Muslim population. Fuad Mussa, the President of the Islamic Cultural Centre, is quoted as saying that "there is a general ignorance among Chileans about Islam. There are many different views of Muslim women regarding the hijab.
Some  women believe that the hijab is too constraining but accept other Muslim women's donning of the garment; whereas other women  are against both themselves and other women wearing the hijab due to its claimed oppressive nature. Furthermore, some women  embrace the hijab as a way to celebrate their religion and feel that it helps them maintain their intellectuality rather than becoming a sex object in society.
Some Muslim women  wear the hijab because it has been part of their family tradition, and they do not want to give up something that is sacred to their family. The subject is complex and layered, and below are a few anecdotes to provide real Muslim women's experiences with the hijab and their views.
Muslim women do not necessarily view the hijab as oppressive garment that is forced upon them as many westerners believe. Syima Aslam, a Muslim businesswoman from England, feels a special place for the hijab in her heart and feels that it directly connects her to Islam. Although she garners some disdain and disapproval of her choice to wear the hijab from some business partners, she stands firmly by her choice to don the hijab.
Hirsi Ali writes about the positive experience she has had living as Muslim and wearing the black garments and veil. Hirsi Ali says, "[the Islamic dress] had a thrill to it, a sensuous feeling. It made me feel empowered I was unique [ It sent out a message of superiority [ Hirsi Ali is among those who support the hijab [source?
When she wore it, she did not feel oppressed, but instead empowered and individualized. Hana Tajima, a Muslim fashion icon in her interview with Vision says that fashion-conscious Muslims are proving that you can be cool and modest, stylish and individual without compromising faith. She started her own fashion label Maysaa in , and blogs about her far-reaching influences and inspirations.
Twenty-six-year-old Tajima epitomises the new Muslim hipster, glamorous yet edgy, elegant yet quirky. There are some Muslim women that believe that the hijab indeed hinders their personal freedom as a woman. A Muslim woman by the name of Rasmieyh Abdelnabi explains that she decided to stop wearing the hijab because she felt that it was putting too much pressure on her to "represent an entire community". Some women do not want to have to deal with this on a daily basis, and it is another reason that some Muslim women decided to un-veil themselves.
In an article written in September , Nesrine Malike explains her discontent with being forced to wear the niqab, a kind of dress that only exposes the eyes, her whole life.
Malike says, "I would rather no one wore a niqab. I would rather that no woman had effectively to disappear, from a young age, because that is the norm in her family. A recent incident in Germany reflects the extent of the issue on an international scale: Iran is another country with strict [ citation needed ] rules on the hijab, and many women feel pressured from the government to dress in a certain style. Islamic dress in Europe , notably the variety of headdresses worn by Muslim women , has become a prominent symbol of the presence of Islam in western Europe.
In several countries the adherence to hijab an Arabic noun meaning "to cover" has led to political controversies and proposals for a legal ban.
The Netherlands government has decided to introduce a ban on face-covering clothing, popularly described as the "burqa ban", although it does not only apply to the Afghan-model burqa.
Other countries, such as France and Australia are debating similar legislation, or have more limited prohibitions. Some of them apply only to face-covering clothing such as the burqa , chador , boushiya , or niqab ; some apply to any clothing with an Islamic religious symbolism such as the khimar , a type of headscarf some countries already have laws banning the wearing of masks in public , which can be applied to veils that conceal the face. The issue has different names in different countries, and "the veil" or " hijab " may be used as general terms for the debate, representing more than just the veil itself, or the concept of modesty embodied in hijab.
Although the Balkans and Eastern Europe have indigenous Muslim populations, most Muslims in western Europe are members of immigrant communities. The issue of Islamic dress is linked with issues of migration and the position of Islam in western society. European Commissioner Franco Frattini said in November , that he did not favour a ban on the burqa. The reasons given for prohibition vary. Legal bans on face-covering clothing are often justified on security grounds, as an anti- terrorism measure.
Ayaan Hirsi Ali sees Islam as incompatible with Western values, at least in its present form. She advocates the values of ' Enlightenment liberalism ', including secularism and equality of women. For her, the burqa or chador are both a symbol of religious obscurantism and the oppression of women. Western Enlightenment values, in her view, require prohibition, regardless of whether a woman has freely chosen Islamic dress. Islamic dress is also seen as a symbol of the existence of parallel societies , and the failure of integration: Proposals for a ban may be linked to other related cultural prohibitions: In France and Turkey , the emphasis is on the secular nature of the state , and the symbolic nature of the Islamic dress.
In Turkey, bans apply at state institutions courts, civil service and in state-funded education. In , France passed a law banning "symbols or clothes through which students conspicuously display their religious affiliation" including hijab in public primary schools, middle schools, and secondary schools,  but this law does not concern universities in French universities, applicable legislation grants students freedom of expression as long as public order is preserved .
These bans also cover Islamic headscarves, which in some other countries are seen as less controversial, although law court staff in the Netherlands are also forbidden to wear Islamic headscarves on grounds of 'state neutrality'.
An apparently less politicised argument is that in specific professions teaching , a ban on "veils" niqab is justified, since face-to-face communication and eye contact is required. This argument has featured prominently in judgements in Britain and the Netherlands, after students or teachers were banned from wearing face-covering clothing. Public and political response to such prohibition proposals is complex, since by definition they mean that the government decides on individual clothing.
Some non-Muslims, who would not be affected by a ban, see it as an issue of civil liberties , as a slippery slope leading to further restrictions on private life. A public opinion poll in London showed that 75 percent of Londoners support "the right of all persons to dress in accordance with their religious beliefs".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This date uncritically uses texts from within a religion or faith system without referring to secondary sources that critically analyze them. Please help improve this article by adding references to reliable secondary sources , with multiple points of view.
October Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints. Please improve the article by adding information on neglected viewpoints, or discuss the issue on the talk page. Shahada Salat Raka'ah Qibla Turbah. Sunnah salat Tahajjud Tarawih. Masturbation Hygiene Sexual violation Zina Awrah. Riba Murabaha Takaful Sukuk.
Jihad Hudna Istijarah asylum Prisoners of war. Islamic scarf controversy in France and French ban on face covering. Yashmak and Headscarf controversy in Turkey. Islam in the Americas. Islamic dress in Europe. Islam portal Fashion portal. Retrieved 30 April The Veil and the Male Elite. Österreich stellt Tragen von Burka und Nikab unter Strafe". They volunteered for organizations like the Red Cross and joined the military. A new image of freedom and self respect led women away from traditional gender roles.
They drove cars and demanded the right to vote. Many of the occupations demanded the wearing of uniforms, including trousers. A military look crept into fashion designs as well, bringing military-style tunic jackets, belts, and epaulets. During World War I, people took to a plainer lifestyle.
Women wore less jewelry, and the lavish clothing of the Edwardian period fell by the wayside. As women dressed for new roles, gender-dictated dress codes relaxed. Skirts became shorter, as they often do during wartime, and colors became sober and muted. Women wore lacy shirtwaists and long, narrow skirts that fell to the top of the foot. The tunic, introduced by Paul Poiret, based on a Russian peasant look, came to blend with the military-style tunic worn during the Great War. At the end of the Edwardian period around , Paul Poiret introduced the jupe colotte for evening wear— a high waisted tunic style dress worn with harem pants.
As the world entered war in , women were offered more tailored versions of the look which included military details along with checks and stripes. Jeanne Paquin, the first woman to gain international fame in the world of fashion, created garments for the new, more active woman.
Her version of the hobble skirt a narrow skirt that restricted a woman's stride included pleats for ease of movement. Her designs mixed tailoring with feminine drapery. The spring of brought a new fashion trend called the "war crinoline" which featured a bell-shaped skirt and a wide over-skirt. The season also featured sloped shoulders and wide collars, but the use of so much fabric was soon viewed as wasteful during wartime and critics called for a more conservative use of cloth.
In , the fashion show was a new phenomenon. Previously, designers had worked with individual clients to create new combinations of style, cut, and fabric for a more personalized look. Paul Poiret's traveling fashion show appeared at charity benefits, theaters, and department stores in Europe. He took his show to the US in Soon, other designers followed suit. In , a New York film company documented a twice yearly show, offering a look at couture for the masses.
Before the advent of fashion models, actresses, singers, and dancers modeled the clothing. During World War I, fashion shows were organized to help raise funds for the war effort. Led by Paul Poiret, French couture houses banded together to form a syndicate to thwart design piracy.
Customers and businesses who wanted to reproduce couture designs were charged a copyright fee and fashion shows were invitation-only. During the Great War, higher hemlines exposed a gap between the tip of the boot and a skirt hem.
The look distracted from the overall appearance of an outfit, so the high button boots of the past were abandoned, and women wore shoes with heels that featured a slight curve as you can see in the illustration here. The Great War introduced a new coat style that became a classic for the rest of the century and beyond: A need for all-weather coats inspired a new style and fabric.
In London, Burberry patented an all-weather, breathable fabric, a chemically processed fine cotton gabardine that was approved for military use. The new military style coat featured a wide collar, extra fabric at the top of the back, epaulettes, and a belt. The trench coat became a fashion staple for both men and women for the next years.
The more relaxed attitude towards gender-specific clothing combined with women's more active lifestyles inspired what we now call sportswear. Skiing, for instance, went from a practical activity to a popular sport. As long skirts were unsuitable for skiing as well as many other activities, women began to wear a short knee-length skirt over knickerbockers. Burberry produced jackets and pants an all-weather gabardine that protected the wearer from wind and snow.
Bathing costumes became less about modesty and more about the ability to actually swim. The one-piece bathing suit was born, offering women greater freedom of movement in the water. Smaller suits were generally worn by competitive swimmers, however many swim costumes remained long and dress-like. A key development in women's undergarments was introduced by a new York debutante named Mary Phelps Jacob. Working under the name Caresse Crosby, Jacobs designed one of the first modern bras.
Previously, breasts had been pushed up by corsets. The new design was soft and boneless with shoulder straps that suspended the breasts from above. Corsets were not totally abandoned but given greater flexibility for comfort.
The Spirella corset offered a greater range of movement than the old fashioned type and purported to improve posture to benefit overall health. The makers of these corsets would send a representative to your home to measure you for a personal fit. The hard war years, combined with the devastating effects of the flu pandemic, brought the world to its knees.
After Armistice, recovery was difficult. People felt crushed and cynical as they moved into peacetime. A new feeling of freedom mixed with disillusionment created a new kind of culture, a live-for-today, devil-may-care society that led to the roaring 20s and the distinctive look, sound, and fashion of the Jazz Age.
Where do I buy early 's inspired clothing? Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites. Julie that sounds so interesting! I once found a WWI nurses uniform at an antique shop. Perhaps you could find some original clothing on ebay. If that proves too expensive or difficult, there are many sites that offer historic clothing patterns. You could find someone who can sew and create some garments.
Be sure to use the appropriate fabrics! People often enjoy "living history" so you could even have a few models wearing the costumes!
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