Perhaps ninety of these languages are still spoken, with around twenty being spoken fluently by indigenous children. To the extent that a system of indigenous customary law can be shown to have continued from the time of European establishment of sovereignty, these groups can make claims to their traditional lands. This was good for my school project but it did not show what they wear. While Australians were long known as tea drinkers, coffee and wine have become increasingly popular. There are several high fashion boutiques and Malls where designer clothing … is available.
A substantial number of people live below the poverty line. The three main social classes are the working class, the middle class, and the upper class, but the boundaries between these groups are a matter of debate.
The wealthiest 5 to 10 percent are usually regarded as upper class, with their wealth derived from ownership and control of property and capital. The growing middle class is defined as individuals with nonmanual occupations. Nonmanual workers typically earn more than manual workers, although upper-level manual workers such as tradespeople earn more than those in sales and personal service positions.
The professions, which include such occupations as accountants, computing specialists, engineers, and medical doctors, have been one of the fastest growing sectors of the economy.
Since the s the number of manual workers has been in decline. Manual workers form the nucleus of the working class; 20 to 40 percent self-identify with this category.
Class consciousness includes the acknowledgment of class divisions, but there is also a broad commitment to an ethic of egalitarianism. Australians commonly believe that socioeconomic mobility is possible and exhibit a basic tolerance and acceptance of inequality associated with social class.
Symbols of Social Stratification. The upper-class can be signified by expensive clothes, motor vehicles, and homes. In particular, the economic value of housing and other real estate properties varies greatly across different suburbs in all cities.
However, class is not always evident from clothes, cars, and living circumstances. Middle-class people from economically wealthy backgrounds An Australian aborigine wears traditional face and body paints and plays a didgeridoo for tourists and commuters at Circular Quay. Young people such as students may dress to mimic imagined styles valued for their symbolic rejection of wealth, and some working-class families go into debt to purchase expensive cars and other commodities.
Patterns of speech, consumption patterns associated with entertainment and the arts, and participation in certain sports may be useful indicators of class. Australia is a parliamentary democracy based on the British system of government. Federal, state, and territorial elections are held every three or four years.
Voting is compulsory at the federal and state levels but not at the local government level. There are two houses of the federal and state parliaments except in Queensland, the Northern Territory, and the Australian Capital Territory. Core features of the political party system derive from early twentieth-century arrangements that followed the federation of the states into a commonwealth. There are two major political parties: The other large political parties are the Australian Democrats and the Green Party.
Since federation, the constitution has been changed only reluctantly through referenda. In there was a vote rejecting the proposition that Australia become a republic, ceasing to have an office of governor-general as a representative of the British monarch and thus as the titular head of state.
Some argue that the society is already a de facto republic since the constitution has entrenched the primacy of popular sovereignty. The British Union Jack on the flag is for some people an acknowledgment of historical ties with Britain, while for others it is a reason to change the constitution to emphasize the independence of the nation. Leadership and Political Officials. There are three levels of government leadership: All officials are elected democratically. At the federal level the governor-general is appointed by the government, as are governors at the state level.
Mining is one of the most important industries in Australia. High-ranking officials are important in the administration of policies and laws. Social Problems and Control. In the legal system authority is divided between states and territories and the commonwealth.
The judicial system is based on the common law of England. The criminal justice system consists of the state and commonwealth agencies and departments responsible for dealing with crime and related issues. The federal criminal justice system deals with offenses against commonwealth laws, and the state systems deal with offenses against state laws.
Criminal law is administered mainly through the commonwealth, state, and territorial police forces; the National Crime Authority; and the state and territorial corrective or penal services. Crimes such as stealing are more common than crimes against individuals, such as assault.
The defense forces operate according to three basic priorities: Australia has a volunteer army reserve but no national service requirement. There is a navy, an army, and an air force. Twelve percent of regular service positions are held by women.
The nation's strategic stance is broadly defensive, with the expectation that armed force will be used only to defend national interests. The Defence Force has been called on frequently, to assist in international security and humanitarian crises in the Middle East, Namibia, and Cambodia as well as in humanitarian crises in Somalia and Rwanda. The most recent military activity has been peacekeeping in East Timor.
The Defence Force also has played a key role in responding to major floods and fires, and its services are called on in search and rescue missions. The approach to social welfare is based on the notions of "a fair go" for all and egalitarianism. Since the s, legislation has promoted equity and equal access to services for all citizens, often to improve the chances of the disadvantaged. This history of helping "the battler" has been challenged by notions of economic rationalism.
Pertinent social welfare issues include rising unemployment, an aging population, child care, assisting people from diverse cultural backgrounds, assisting people in remote areas, and poverty. Approximately two million people live below the poverty line.
A host of social welfare provisions have been enacted throughout the nation's history. Australia was one of the first countries to give women the vote. It also was the first country to legislate a forty-hour working week in The government maintains continuing relationships with many large and small Nongovernmental organizations NGOs that are active in human rights and community services Amnesty International, Australian Red Cross, Defense for Children International, and International Women's Development Agency.
NGOs provide relevant needs-based community services and welfare and promote changes in government policies and activities. Most not-for-profit NGOs were created by religious organizations to meet perceived needs or by community members to deal with a specific problem Salvation Army, Brotherhood of Saint Lawrence, Care Australia. The government encourages the existence of charitable NGOs through tax exemptions and liberal laws of association and incorporation. Often, NGOs are established in response to immediate or emergency social problems.
The government will intervene when resources are not being used efficiently and when services are being duplicated. NGOs, particularly those in the nonprofit sector, are major providers of welfare services and significant contributors in the health, education, sport, recreation, entertainment, and finance industries.
The bulk of their revenue comes from government grants, private donations, and service fees. Division of Labor by Gender. British ideas and practices involving gender were imported with colonization. Women tend to be associated with the private sphere, unpaid work, and the home, while men tend to be associated with the public sphere, paid work, and the larger society.
This division was particularly pronounced in the early years of settlement, when free settler women were seen as homemakers who brought civility to the male population. Migrant women have been valued for their ability to create settled families and generally have entered the country as dependents. Traditionally, occupation has been sex-segregated, with women predominating as domestics and in the "caring professions," such as teaching and nursing.
However, sex discrimination and affirmative action policy since the late s has been directed toward promoting gender equality in all spheres. As a consequence, there have been increases in women's participation in secondary and higher education as well as in the general workforce and an increase in the availability of child care. The Relative Status of Women and Men. Many areas of social, economic, political, and religious life remain gendered, generally to the disadvantage of women.
Women are underrepresented in scientific occupations, managerial positions, and the professions and overrepresented in administrative and clerical positions. Women earn on average less than men do and spend more time than men doing unpaid domestic work. Women's right to vote in federal elections was included in the constitution of Nevertheless, the progress of women in entering public office was A traditional pearling lugger is loaded with supplies at Streeter's Jetty. In women's representation in local, state and federal government was around 20 percent.
Although women are more likely to spend time on religious activities than men, the majority of religious ministers are male.
Most heterosexual couples marry for love and to confirm a long-term emotional, financial, and sexual commitment. Arranged marriages occur in some ethnic groups, but are not considered desirable by most people.
Marriage is not essential for a cohabiting relationship or child rearing, but nearly 60 percent of people over fifteen years of age are married. The law grants members of de facto relationships legal rights and responsibilities equivalent to those of formally married couples.
Homosexual couples are not recognized by law as married regardless of a long-term relationship. Marriage occurs with a civil or religious ceremony conducted by a registered official and can take place in any public or private location.
The ceremony usually is followed by a celebration with food, drink, and music. Guests provide gifts of household goods or money, and the parents of the couple often make substantial contributions to the cost of the wedding. No other official exchange of property occurs. Divorce has been readily available since and involves little stigma. It requires a one-year separation period and occurs in approximately 40 percent of first marriages.
Upon divorce, the husband and wife agree to divide their mutual property and child-rearing responsibilities; law courts and mediators sometimes to assist with this process. Remarriage is common and accepted. A significant trend in family formation is a dramatic increase in the proportion of marriages preceded by a period of cohabitation. The nuclear family is widely considered the norm; the most common household unit in the census was the couple, followed closely by the couple with dependent children, then the one-parent family with dependent children, the couple with nondependent children, and other family groups.
A pervasive myth is that the extended family does not exist and that society is composed of nuclear families cut off from extended kin. While most people live in couple-only or nuclear family households, the extended family is an important source of support for most people.
Blended families and stepfamilies with children from former marriages are becoming more common. Citizens have "testamentary freedom" or the right to declare how they wish their property to be distributed after death. With this freedom, individuals can legally enforce their cultural practices. They also can choose to remove relatives from the will and pass their property to a charitable organization or an unrelated person.
If an individual dies without a valid will, the property is distributed to the spouse, then the children of the deceased, and then the parents and other kin.
If there are no relatives, the property goes to the Crown. Broad kin groups are not a significant feature of the national culture, but extended families exist across households and are the basis for emotional, financial, and social support. Many minority ethnic groups recognize kin networks of considerable breadth. Aboriginal cultures encompass principles of traditional kinship in which large networks of relatives form the significant communities of everyday life.
Child rearing varies considerably with the country of origin, class background, the education and occupation of the parents, and the religious group to which a family belongs. While most practices are aimed at developing a responsible and independent child, Aboriginal and many migrant families tend to indulge young children more than do most Anglo-Celtic parents.
Some ethnic groups supervise their young more strictly than the dominant Anglo-Celtic population, encouraging them to mix only with family and friends, be dependent on the family, and leave decision making to the parents. Child Rearing and Education. Mothers are the preferred primary caretakers, although fathers are taking increasing responsibility for child care.
In the past mothers were not as isolated in their child care responsibilities, receiving help from older children, extended kin, and neighbors. The reduction in family and household size in recent years has meant that the burden of care falls largely on mothers. There is significant variation in ideas about good parenting, reflecting the diverse cultural values and traditions of parents' ethnic background. Practices justified by recent scientific research usually are considered the best.
In the past the values most prized in children were obedience and deference, but today good parenting is commonly associated with having assertive and independent children. There are no formal initiation ceremonies for the "national culture," although the twenty-first birthday often is celebrated as a rite of passage into adulthood.
Access to high-quality education is considered the right of all citizens, and the government provides compulsory primary and secondary schooling for children between ages six and fifteen. Most schools are fully funded by the government. The remainder are nongovernment schools that receive nearly half their funding from fees and private sources such as religious associations.
Attendance at nongovernment schools has been increasing since the s because it is felt that independent schooling provides better educational and employment opportunities. Preschool centers are available for children younger than age six.
Nongovernment schools are mainly Catholic. Education is aimed at providing children with social and workplace skills. Educational methods vary depending on particular requirements; for example, education for children in remote rural locations relies heavily on advanced communication technologies.
Guidelines have been established in all states for dealing with children with special educational needs, such as those with disabilities and those who are intellectually gifted. Higher education is considered to offer the best employment opportunities. Consequently, tertiary education has become more widely available and is undertaken by an increasingly larger proportion of the population.
It is available in two forms: In , 37 percent of women and 47 percent of men received post-school qualifications, and Universities also attract substantial numbers of overseas students.
The government is responsible for funding most universities and institutions, with increasing contributions being made by students in the form of fees and postgraduation tax payments. A predominant image among Australians is that they are very casual, easygoing, and familiar. First names are used commonly as terms of address. An ideology of egalitarianism pervades, with men, women, and children treated similarly.
Attempts at appearing superior to others in terms of dress, manners, knowledge, and the work ethic are discouraged. A handshake is the most common way to greet a new acquaintance, and a hug, a kiss on the cheek, or a verbal greeting the most common way to greet a friend. The colloquialism, "g'day" good day , is considered the quintessential greeting. There is an easy friendliness in public places. Personal privacy is respected and staring is discouraged, although eye contact is not avoided.
Eye contact during conversation is considered polite among the general population; averting the eyes during conversation is considered a sign of respect among Aboriginal people.
When a line is forming, new arrivals must go to the end. In museums and exhibitions voices are hushed. In performance contexts the audience is expected to be silent and attentive. Service attendants consider themselves equal to their guests, and usually are not subservient.
Australians also resist being "served. Bodily functions are considered inevitable but are not discussed or performed in public. The constitution guarantees religious freedom, and while there is no official national religion, Australia generally is described as a Christian country.
British colonists brought the Anglican belief system in , and three-quarters of the population continues to identify with some form of Christianity, predominantly the Catholic and Anglican faiths.
Until recently almost all businesses closed for Christian religious holidays. Extensive immigration has made Australia one of the most religiously diverse societies in the world. Almost all faiths are represented, with significant numbers of Muslims, Buddhists, Jews, and Hindus.
Many indigenous Australians have embraced Christianity, often as a result of their contact with missionaries and missions.
Religious alternatives such as spiritualism and Theosophy have had a small but steady presence since the s. A growing set of beliefs is represented by the so-called New Age movement, which arrived in the s and evolved into the widespread alternative health and spirituality movement of the s.
This has opened the way for an interest in paganism and other aspects of the occult among a minority of citizens. There has been an increase in lay religious practitioners in the Christian churches in recent times as a result of decrease in the number of people entering the clergy.
Most religious institutions are hierarchical in structure. Religious specialists participate in pastoral care, parish administration, and fund-raising for missions.
Many also maintain a host of institutions that deal with education, aged care, family services, immigration, health, youth, and prisoner rehabilitation. Rituals and Holy Places. Every religious denomination has its own places of worship, and most expect their followers to attend religious services regularly. There has been a decline in regular church attendance among the younger generation of Christians, who tend to be critical of church policy and practice.
Places of worship are considered sacred and include locations that hold spiritual significance for believers. Among certain ethnic groups shrines are established in places where saints are said to have appeared. There are many Aboriginal sacred sites, which are generally places in the landscape. Death and the Afterlife. The law requires that deceased people be dealt with according to health regulations. A vigil over the body in the family home is practiced in some religious and cultural traditions.
Funeral parlors prepare the body of the deceased for cremation or burial in a cemetery. Funerals are attended by family members and friends and often include a religious ceremony. Most medical health care is subsidized or paid for by the government, for which a small levy is paid by all citizens.
Public hospitals often provide free services. People can select a private general practitioner, usually in their neighborhood. The general practitioner provides referrals to specialist doctors where necessary, and payment is usually on a feefor-service basis.
Health professionals may work privately or in a hospital setting. In recent years there has been an attempt to increase the level of private health insurance coverage among citizens. Prevention of illness is a high priority of the government, with several programs such as vaccination, public health warnings about smoking and AIDS, public education campaigns on nutrition and exercise, and public awareness campaigns regarding heavy drinking and illicit drugs.
Individuals are held to be responsible for their own health problems, and most investment goes to individually oriented, high-technology curative medicine.
In the s community health centers were established to focus on groups with special needs, such as women, migrants, and Aboriginal people. These centers provide more holistic care by addressing personal and social problems as well as health conditions. Increasing numbers of people combine Western medicine with traditional and New Age practices. This may include Chinese herbalists, iridology, and homeopathic medicine.
These alternative forms of medical treatment generally are not subsidized by the government. The Royal Flying Doctor Service provides emergency medical assistance to those in remote areas.
It was founded in and is funded by government and public donations. The service also provides emergency assistance during floods and fires. Probably the most significant national secular celebration is Anzac Day on 25 April.
However, the event now encompasses participants in all wars in which Australia has been involved. Dawn services are held at war memorials and there are well-attended street parades. On Remembrance Day 11 November , which is not a public holiday, a two-minute silence is observed in remembrance of Australians who fought and died in wars.
Australia Day is celebrated on 26 January to commemorate British settlement, and many capital cities host a fireworks event. Boxing Day occurs on 26 December. The Boxing Day cricket test match is an annual event watched on television by many residents. The day also is treated as an opportunity to extend Christmas socializing, with many barbecues taking place in public parks or at private homes.
Labour Day is a public holiday to commemorate improved working conditions and the implementation of the eight-hour workday. It is celebrated at different times of the year in different states. A significant celebration occurs on Melbourne Cup Day, an annual horse-racing event in Melbourne. Many people attending the race dress formally, and employees in workplaces gather to watch the event on television.
Royal Easter Shows and Royal Show Days with annual agricultural shows are held in capital cities with exhibits, competitions, and sideshows highlighting the rural tradition. On Grand Final Days, the annual finals to the national Australian Rules and Rugby League football competitions, large crowds gather to watch the game and friends congregate to watch it on television in homes and public bars.
Most states have public holidays to commemorate the founding of the first local colony, and there are annual arts festivals that attract local, national, and international artists as well as multicultural festivals. Some states have wine festivals.
Support for the Arts. Most people who participate in the arts depend on other professions for their primary income. Full-time arts practitioners are usually highly dependent on government funding. The sale of work in graphic arts, multimedia, and literature earns a substantial income for many practitioners, while the performance arts, in particular dance, do not tend to generate enough income to cover their costs. The Australia Council funds artistic activity, provides incomes to arts workers and projects, and is the primary source of income for dance and theater.
The film and television industries receive substantial government support and tax incentives. There is government funding for schools of the performing arts.
Approximately 10 percent of large businesses provide some form of support or funding to the arts or cultural events.
Since the s a national literature has been developing with a distinctly Australian voice. This tradition, which is focused largely on the bush as a mythic place in the Australian imagination, has been challenged recently by a new suburban focus for literature.
Increasingly, Aboriginal and other authors from diverse cultural backgrounds are having work published and appreciated. Australian authors have won many international awards, and Australians are claimed to be one of the leading nations in per capita spending on books and magazines.
Painting was dominated by the European tradition for many years, with landscapes painted to resemble their European counterparts until at least The Heidelberg school was influential in the late nineteenth century. Social-realist images of immigrants and the working class were favored as more "Australian" by Since , images of the isolated outback have been popularized by artists such as Russell Drysdale and Sydney Nolan.
Aboriginal artists were acknowledged in with a comprehensive display of their art in the Australian National Gallery. Their work is becoming increasingly successful internationally.
Each state capital has at least one major performing arts venue. Playwrights have been successful in presenting Australian society to theatergoers. Indigenous performance has been supported by a number of theater and dance companies since the early s. Women's theater achieved a high level of attention during the s. The styles of music, dance, drama, and oratory vary significantly, reflecting the multicultural mix of the society.
Annual festivals of arts in the states showcase local and international work and are well attended, in particular by the well educated and the wealthy. Music styles range from classical and symphonic to rock, pop, and alternative styles. Music is the most popular performance art, attracting large audiences. Pop music is more successful than symphony and chamber music.
Many Australian pop musicians have had international success. Comedy and cabaret also attract large audiences and appear to have a large talent pool. Ballet is popular, with over twenty-five hundred schools in the early s.
The Australian Ballet, founded in , enjoys a good international reputation. The sciences are well served in a number of leading fields, including astronomy, chemistry, medicine, and engineering.
Funding is provided by a combination of government and industry. Most universities provide scientific programs. The social sciences are not as well funded mainly because they tend not to produce marketable outcomes. Nevertheless, there is a strong representation in disciplines such as psychology, history, economics, sociology, and anthropology in universities. Social scientists work both in their own country and overseas. There is a tradition of social scientists from certain disciplinary backgrounds working in government and social welfare organizations.
The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Australia , Watts, Sociology Australia , Intruders in the Bush: The Australian Quest for Identity , 2nd ed. Multiculturalism and the Demise of Nationalism in Australia , Defense White Paper , The Oxford Companion to Australian History , Continuity and Change , Themes and Perspectives, The Penguin Bicentennial History of Australia: The Story of Years , Worship in the World's Religions , Australia Now—A Statistical Profile.
History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space There has always been a high concentration of urban and suburban dwellers, partly because the harsh physical environment has encouraged people to remain close to the fertile coastal areas.
Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. Social Stratification Classes and Castes. Social Welfare and Change Programs The approach to social welfare is based on the notions of "a fair go" for all and egalitarianism.
Marriage, Family, and Kinship Marriage. It depends on the circumstances and the context. There isn't any particular French clothing Most of the time, people wear casual clothes even to go to work. Please, contextu … alize your question ;-. What does traditional Hungarian clothing look like? Casual wear in the cities includes jeans, T-sh … irts, and sweatshirts.
Pantsuits are popular with both men and women for casual and more formal occasions. In rural areas, one can still see more traditional clothing. Women may wear peasant babushkas scarves on their heads, and men may wear hats with floppy brims. What is the traditional clothing in Belize look like? Traditional clothes worn in Belize include straw hats, and skirtsthat are vividly colored and have shells on them.
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Congo regular clothing looks like ours, though woman tend to wear a kerchief around the head. Traditional Argentinian clothes consist of a wollen skirt and a poncho.
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