Donated garments will be processed by I: Amnesia anterograde childhood post-traumatic psychogenic retrograde transient global Decay theory Forgetting curve Interference theory Memory inhibition Motivated forgetting Repressed memory Retrieval-induced forgetting Selective amnesia Weapon focus. On December 4, , Annese's group acquired brain slices, with only two damaged slices and 16 potentially problematic slices. Henry Molaison was born on February 26, , and experienced intractable epilepsy that has sometimes been attributed to a bicycle accident at the age of seven. Cheap Monday , known for its distinctive skull logo, is a full fashion brand launched in
Although the surgery was partially successful in controlling his epilepsy, a severe side effect was that he became unable to form new memories. The surgery took place in and H. Molaison's brain was kept at University of California, San Diego where it was sliced into histological sections on December 4, Institute at UC Davis. Henry Molaison was born on February 26, , and experienced intractable epilepsy that has sometimes been attributed to a bicycle accident at the age of seven.
This accident was initially reported to have occurred at age nine, but this was corrected by the patient's mother at a later stage. In , he was referred to William Beecher Scoville , a neurosurgeon at Hartford Hospital , for treatment. Scoville localized Molaison's epilepsy to his left and right medial temporal lobes MTLs and suggested surgical resection of the MTLs as a treatment. On September 1, , at the age of 27, Molaison's bilateral medial temporal lobe resection included the removal of the hippocampal formation and adjacent structures, including most of the amygdaloid complex and entorhinal cortex.
Some of his anterolateral temporal cortex was also destroyed. After the surgery, which was partially successful in its primary goal of controlling his epilepsy, Molaison developed severe anterograde amnesia: According to some scientists, he was impaired in his ability to form new semantic knowledge,  but researchers argue over the extent of this impairment.
He also had moderate retrograde amnesia , and could not remember most events in the one- to two-year period before surgery, nor some events up to 11 years before, meaning that his amnesia was temporally graded.
However, his ability to form long-term procedural memories was intact; thus he could, for example, learn new motor skills , despite not being able to remember learning them. The case was first reported in a paper by Scoville and Brenda Milner in For post information he was able to modify old memories with new information. For instance, he could add a memory about Jonas Salk by modifying his memory of polio. He died on December 2, Molaison was influential not only for the knowledge he provided about memory impairment and amnesia, but also because it was thought his exact brain surgery allowed a good understanding of how particular areas of the brain may be linked to specific processes hypothesized to occur in memory formation.
In this way, his case was taken to provide information about brain pathology , and helped to form theories of normal memory function. In particular, his apparent ability to complete tasks that require recall from short-term memory and procedural memory but not long-term episodic memory suggests that recall from these memory systems may be mediated, at least in part, by different areas of the brain.
Similarly, his ability to recall long-term memories that existed well before his surgery, but inability to create new long-term memories, suggests that encoding and retrieval of long-term memory information may also be mediated by distinct systems.
Nevertheless, imaging of Molaison's brain in the late s revealed the extent of damage was more widespread than previous theories had accounted for, making it very hard to identify any one particular region or even isolated set of regions that were responsible for HM's deficits.
The study of Molaison revolutionized the understanding of the organization of human memory. It has provided broad evidence for the rejection of old theories and the formation of new theories on human memory, in particular about its processes and the underlying neural structures cf.
In the following, some of the major insights are outlined. Molaison's brain was the subject of an anatomical study funded by the Dana Foundation and the National Science Foundation. The aim of the project, headed by Jacopo Annese, of The Brain Observatory at UC San Diego , was to provide a complete microscopic survey of the entire brain to reveal the neurological basis of Molaison's historical memory impairment at cellular resolution.
On December 4, , Annese's group acquired brain slices, with only two damaged slices and 16 potentially problematic slices. The results of the study were published in Nature Communications for January The researchers found, to their surprise, that half of H. Additionally, a previously unexpected discrete lesion was discovered in the prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest revisiting raw data from behavioral testing [ citation needed ]. A three-dimensional virtual model of the brain allowed the dynamics of the surgery to be reconstructed; it was found that the brain damage above the left orbit could have been created by Dr.
Scoville when he lifted the frontal lobe to reach into the medial temporal lobes. The article also describes the general neuropathological state of the brain via multiple imaging modalities. Several pathological features were discovered, some severe, which had contributed to his cognitive decline.
The digital atlas of HM's brain was made publicly available on the Internet free of charge; its "permanence on the web relies on contributions from users". Molaison's general condition has been described as heavy anterograde amnesia , as well as temporally graded retrograde amnesia. Since HM did not show any memory impairment before the surgery, the removal of the medial temporal lobes can be held responsible for his memory disorder.
Consequently, the medial temporal lobes can be assumed to be a major component involved in the formation of semantic and episodic long-term memories cf. Further evidence for this assumption has been gained by studies of other patients with lesions of their medial temporal lobe structures.
Despite his amnesic symptoms, Molaison performed quite normally in tests of intellectual ability, indicating that some memory functions e. However, for sentence-level language comprehension and production, Molaison exhibited the same deficits and sparing as in memory. Molaison was able to remember information over short intervals of time. This finding provides evidence that working memory does not rely on medial temporal structures.
It further supports the general distinction between short-term and long-term stores of memory. Molaison's largely intact word retrieval provides evidence that lexical memory is independent of the medial temporal structures.
In addition to his intact working memory and intellectual abilities, studies of Molaison's ability to acquire new motor skills contributed to a demonstrated preserved motor learning Corkin, In a study conducted by Milner in the early s, Molaison acquired the new skill of drawing a figure by looking at its reflection in a mirror Corkin, Further evidence for intact motor learning was provided in a study carried out by Corkin In this study, Molaison was tested on three motor learning tasks and demonstrated full motor learning abilities in all of them.
Experiments involving repetition priming underscored Molaison's ability to acquire implicit non-conscious memories, in contrast to his inability to acquire new explicit semantic and episodic memories Corkin, These findings provide evidence that memory of skills and repetition priming rely on different neural structures than memories of episodes and facts; whereas procedural memory and repetition priming do not rely on the medial temporal structures removed from Molaison, semantic and episodic memory do cf.
The dissociation of Molaison's implicit and explicit learning abilities along their underlying neural structures has served as an important contribution to our understanding of human memory: According to Corkin , studies of Molaison's memory abilities have also provided insights regarding the neural structures responsible for spatial memory and processing of spatial information.
Despite his general inability to form new episodic or factual long-term memories, as well as his heavy impairment on certain spatial memory tests, Molaison was able to draw a quite detailed map of the topographical layout of his residence.
The company's three brands- Cheap Monday, Monki, and Weekday- continue to be run as separate concepts. Cheap Monday , known for its distinctive skull logo, is a full fashion brand launched in Monki is "a wild and crazy international retail concept that believes that, it needs to fight ordinary and boost imagination with an experience out of the ordinary". Fumes from chemicals, poor ventilation, malnutrition and even "mass hysteria" have all been blamed for making workers ill. Bangladeshi and international labour groups in put forth a detailed safety proposal which entailed the establishment of independent inspections of garment factories.
The plan called for inspectors to have the power to close unsafe factories. The proposal entailed a legally binding contract between suppliers, customers and unions. Further efforts by unions to advance the proposal after numerous and deadly factory fires have been rejected. Most retailers and brands do not share this information, citing commercial confidentiality as a reason. In September , CleanClothes. On January 6, , it was reported that unsold or refunded clothing and other items in one New York City store were cut up before being discarded, presumably to prevent resale or use.
In August , the Swedish fashion chain withdrew faux-leather headdresses from Canadian stores after consumers complained the items, part of the company's summer music festival collection, were insulting to Canada's Aboriginal peoples.
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